Rhinitis: Know the Causes of the Problem and Learn to Prevent

Stuffy nose, itching and running? Are these typical signs of rhinitis? problem that can affect men and women of any age and race.

Rhinitis is currently considered one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Despite this, there is still much doubt around the subject. For example, many people are unaware of the differences between rhinitis and sinusitis, do not know how the disease is treated or how to prevent a seizure.

Thinking about it, below you know all the information about rhinitis to clarify your possible doubts!


What is rhinitis?

Mário Pinheiro Espirito, PhD in Otorhinolaryngology and professor at the Medical School of the University of Cuiabá (MT), explains that rhinitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa.

Alexandre de Souza Cury, otorhinolaryngologist, master in molecular biology and professor of medicine at Anhanguera Uniderp University, points out that this inflammation in the tissues of the nose and nearby structures is due to exposure to a pathogen, such as allergic rhinitis. there is exposure to an allergen.

? Rhinitis is considered one of the most common chronic diseases in the world today ?, adds Alexandre Cury. Also according to otolaryngologist Cury, rhinitis is a pathology that affects all ages. ? For example, allergic rhinitis has a peak incidence in childhood and adolescence. Today, in Brazil, between 6 and 7 years old, it affects approximately 25% of children and almost 30% of teenagers between 13 and 14 years old ?, he says.


What are the types of rhinitis?

Alexandre Cury points out that, more generally, rhinitis can be divided between:

  1. Allergic (rhinitis of infectious origin, which may be viral, bacterial and fungal);
  2. Non-infectious (rhinitis that can be irritative, occupational, drug, hormonal, gestational, elderly, athlete, taste, among others).

Professor Mario Espito talks about the characteristics of some of the best known rhinitis types:

Allergic Rhinitis: It is triggered by allergens such as dust mites, dust, molds, dog and cat hair.


Medicinal Rhinitis: It occurs due to the use of medications, especially topical decongestants (drops dripping into the nose) for long periods and most often without medical advice.

Infectious Rhinitis: They are usually caused by colds and flu, which are self-limiting for 7 to 10 days and, in some cases, treated with symptomatic medications (decongestants, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs).

Vasomotor rhinitis: occurs by climate or temperature changes.

What causes the problem?

Just as there are different types of rhinitis, so are the causes of this inflammation in the tissues of the nose and nearby structures.

Mário Espito points out that rhinitis can be caused by both viruses and bacteria, although it is most commonly manifested as a result of allergy, or by reactions to dust, smoke and other environmental agents.

Alexandre Cury explains that in the case of allergic rhinitis, we have allergens (dust, dust mites, pollen, animal hair) as causative factors. In drug rhinitis, there is prolonged use of topical nasal vasoconstrictors. "In occupational rhinitis, we have the irritants present in the workplace," he adds.

Rhinitis Symptoms

The otolaryngologist Cury points out that the main symptoms of rhinitis are:

  • Nasal obstruction
  • Sneezing
  • Nasal itching (itchy nose)
  • Runny nose (runny nose)

The Doctor of Otorhinolaryngology Mário Espito explains that the inflammation resulting from rhinitis results in excessive mucus production, generated by the accumulation of histamine, which causes runny nose? most typical symptom of rhinitis. "There may also be nasal obstruction, sneezing, decreased smell, itching and nose irritation," he adds.

How is she diagnosed

Alexandre Cury points out that to diagnose rhinitis the ENT physician relies on a good clinical history with the patient and an appropriate physical examination.

Mário Espito adds that sometimes additional exams may be necessary, such as nasal video endoscopy, radiographs and CT scans of the face, allergic tests, serum and specific IgE dosage, rhinomanometry, nasal secretion cytology.

Is there treatment for rhinitis?

Professor Mario Espito explains that the treatment of rhinitis should include environmental hygiene and the use of medications (decongestants, mucolytics, antiallergics, nasal physiological solution, nasal corticosteroids). "And in cases of allergic rhinitis it may be necessary to use vaccines (immunotherapy)," he adds.

How to prevent a rhinitis crisis?

We must always avoid the substances that trigger the rhinitis crisis, such as pollutants and chemicals.

"It is necessary to know that the most important role in the treatment of rhinitis belongs to the patient and that sometimes small measures bring great results", highlights Mário Espito. In this sense, he advises that it is fundamental:

  • Avoid house dust and dust mites;
  • Avoid irritating agents and substances.

To avoid dust and fungus, Spit guides:

  • Remove everything that can gather dust in your home;
  • Rugs, carpets, thick curtains are places where dust mites and dust are lodged;
  • The smooth floors are much easier to clean and do not house dust mites;
  • Thin and small, cleanable rugs are more practical and less harmful;
  • Lightweight, washable curtains are ideal;
  • Always wipe the furniture and floor with a damp cloth if possible daily;
  • Leave the rooms always open to ventilate them and to let the sun rays in as long as possible.

Rhinitis x Sinusitis

Mario Espito explains that rhinitis is an inflammation of the structure of the nose that causes symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing and itchy nose. "And sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses," he says.

Also according to the doctor in otorhinolaryngology, the sinusitis can be acute when the symptoms last a few weeks, or chronic when the symptoms are daily.

But beyond the classic signs? stuffy nose, facial congestion, fever, headache, yellowish phlegm, cough and changes in smell - if left untreated, the disease, especially acute, can also lead to more serious complications. If pus gets to the eyes, for example, they may swell, leaving the eyelids red and irritated. Other than that, the secretion can still reach the brain, causing brain abscess, encephalitis and meningitis ?, highlights.

It should be emphasized that both rhinitis and sinusitis should be treated according to medical advice to avoid complications. And small preventive measures, such as dusting everything in your home, always wiping the furniture and floors with a damp cloth, etc., are great results!

Cold or Allergy? (August 2021)


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